Marcel Duchamp didn't just open a new door in the edifice of modern art: he ripped the door off its hinges, and smashed a couple of new holes in the wall, and then stood back to see other artists flood through the new gateways, bringing with them a wealth of previously untapped thought, creativity, and originality. Born in 1887 in France, Duchamp's early work reflected his interest in Cubism, the depiction of movement, and the cinematic eye. This process culminated in his painting Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, which freezes the sequential positions of a nude in space and time. The painting was rejected for the Cubist Salon des Indépendants, and caused scandal at the 1913 Armory Show when it was exhibited in New York City, setting up a pattern of formal critical rejection of Duchamp's work that was to be repeated later in his life. After emigrating to the USA in 1914, Duchamp began production of "readymades," found objects designated as art by their explicit choice and presentation by the artist. He viewed readymades as an antidote to "retinal art," art that focused solely on the visual. An early example, Prelude to a Broken Arm (En Avance du Bras Cassé), is a snowshovel with the work's title painted upon it. It was his 1917 readymade Fountain, though, that really turned the art world upside-down: an inverted urinal with the inscription "R. Mutt 1917," the piece was rejected by the Society of Independent Artists exhibit. Duchamp's work was not limited to the readymades, though: a monumental glass piece titled The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even - commonly known as The Large Glass - consumed much of his time from 1915 to 1923. The piece combines architecturally precise drawing with elements determined by chance and with meticulous craftsmanship; damaged in shipment, Duchamp repaired the piece, but chose not to remake it, viewing the cracks in the glass as a new component of the work. Working with fellow artist Man Ray, Duchamp's work extended in new directions in the 20s, including the creation of kinetic works in rotating glass, and a film of these works (Anémic Cinéma). After this period, Duchamp's artistic output was largely displaced by his fascination with chess. Nonetheless, he remained an active voice in the art world, acting as a consultant for artists, dealers and collectors. Late in life, Duchamp was gratified to see his ideas picked up and expanded in new directions by pop artists such as Andy Warhol, whose Campbell soup paintings Duchamp viewed as a further rejection of retinal art. Duchamp died in 1968. In 2004 his readymade Fountain was selected as "the most influential artwork of the 20th century" by the leading professionals of the British art world.